Nearly 70 Gbit/s NRZ-OOK encoding of a dual-mode 850 nm VCSEL with a highly In-doped and small Zn-diffused emission area

Gong-Ru Lin, Chih-Hsien Cheng, Hao-Chung Kuo, Shao-Yung Lee, Xin Chen, Chia-Hsuan Wang, Ming-Jun Li, Yu-Ming Huang, Wei-Ta Huang, and Dong Yang

Photonics Research , 10(7), 1602 (2022) — Published in June 2022


By pre-emphasized encoding of a dual-mode 850 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL), the nearly 70 Gbit/s on–off keying (OOK) transmission performance is performed for the ultrafast data link. This VCSEL is designed with a new structural configuration, including 6 μm oxidized aperture and 4 μm Zn-diffused emission aperture, which exhibits dual-mode lasing with a threshold current of 0.75 mA, a nonsaturated power of 2.2 mW at 8 mA, and a differential quantum efficiency of 0.38 under a lensed OM4 multimode fiber (MMF) coupling scheme. In particular, the high indium (In) dopant density in the quantum well increases its differential gain coefficient to upshift the relaxation oscillation frequency, which effectively broadens the modulation bandwidth to high-speed data transmission. For the back-to-back transmission, the VCSEL coupled with a lensed OM4-MMF (1 m) for short-reach link reveals an NRZ-OOK transmission at 66 and 69 Gbit/s with a corresponding bit-error ratio (BER) of 5.9×10−105.9×10−10 and 10−510−5 for error-free decoding after forward-error correction. When employing graded-index single-mode fiber (GI-SMF) with 100 m length as the transmission segment, the VCSEL linked to the GI-SMF connected with a lensed OM4-MMF (1 m) collimator can provide the pre-emphasized NRZ-OOK transmission at 51 Gbit/s with a BER of 4.5×10−104.5×10−10 and SNR of 14.1 dB.