Tsung-Chi Hsu, Yu-Tsai Teng, Yen-Wei Yeh, Xiaotong Fan, Kuo-Hsiung Chu, Su-Hui Lin, Kuo-Kuang Yeh, Po-Tsung Lee, Yue Lin, Zhong Chen, Tingzhu Wu and Hao-Chung Kuo
Photonics 2021, 8(6), 196 — Published in May 2021
High-quality epitaxial layers are directly related to internal quantum efficiency. The methods used to design such epitaxial layers are reviewed in this article. The ultraviolet C (UVC) light-emitting diode (LED) epitaxial layer structure exhibits electron leakage; therefore, many research groups have proposed the design of blocking layers and carrier transportation to generate high electron–hole recombination rates. This also aids in increasing the internal quantum efficiency. The cap layer, p-GaN, exhibits high absorption in deep UV radiation; thus, a small thickness is usually chosen. Flip chip design is more popular for such devices in the UV band, and the main factors for consideration are light extraction and heat transportation. However, the choice of encapsulation materials is important, because unsuitable encapsulation materials will be degraded by ultraviolet light irradiation. A suitable package design can account for light extraction and heat transportation. Finally, an atomic layer deposition Al2O3 film has been proposed as a mesa passivation layer. It can provide a low reverse current leakage. Moreover, it can help increase the quantum efficiency, enhance the moisture resistance, and improve reliability. UVC LED applications can be used in sterilization, water purification, air purification, and medical and military fields.